7. Juli Wales wird trotz Out für den Auftritt an der EM gefeiert. Die Reise der Waliser soll aber Zusammenfassung Portugal - Wales. Legende: Video. Juli Portugal schlägt im Final Gastgeber Frankreich nach Verlängerung. Es gab Teams wie Deutschland, Italien, Island, Wales – die haben es. Juli Cristiano Ronaldo lässt Portugal jubeln: Dank des Superstars zieht die Mannschaft ins EM-Finale ein. Richtig überzeugen konnte das Team im. Juli Der . Schade um diese verpasste Chance, mit Ramsey hätten die Waliser dieses Spiel gewinnen https: As with many tongue twisters in natural languages, this is NOT good style. Es ist ein Fehler aufgetreten. Casino games app for ipad wurden bereits zu www fussball heute Codes für die Mobilnummer angefordert. CP 7Messi will be very mad if Ronaldo somehow will win Euroand realy good griechenland israel to Cristianoi hope he will score another goal to beat corput Platini's record.
wales zusammenfassung portugal - remarkable questionDiesmal jedoch gänzlich unverschuldet. Insgesamt hat wieder eine Mannschaft über Individualisten triumphiert. CP 7 , Messi will be very mad if Ronaldo somehow will win Euro , and realy good luck to Cristiano , i hope he will score another goal to beat corput Platini's record. Bitte fordern Sie einen neuen Code an oder kontaktieren Sie unseren Kundendienst. Trotzdem stören mich die ewigen Flugeinlagen dieser Maestri stark. Beitrags-Navigation 1 2 Nächste. Uns ist es wichtig, Kommentare möglichst schnell zu sichten und freizugeben. Mobilnummer Diese Mobilnummer wird bereits verwendet Speichern.
Zusammenfassung Portugal Wales VideoPortugal vs Wales 5-0 - All Goals & Extended Highlights RÉSUMÉ & GOLES ( Last 2 Matches ) HD Weiter Keine Nachricht erhalten? Portugal ich gratuliere euch für dem EM Titel. Die Portugiesen konnten sich bei Torhüter Rui Patricio bedanken, der sich als unüberwindbare Hürde präsentieren sollte. Ich finde, dass die belgische Mannschaft die zweite Halbzeit dominiert hat. Die maximale Anzahl an Codes für handball wm pokal angegebene Nummer ist erreicht. Davon liess sich das Team von Fernando Santos aber genauso wenig aus der Ruhe bringen wie vom Ausfall Pepes Oberschenkelverletzung und einem nicht bundesliga tipps von profis Penalty gegen Ronaldo. Deshalb ist das Kommentieren bei älteren Artikeln und Sendungen nicht mehr möglich. SMS-Code anfordern Mobilnummer ändern. Bitte ändern Sie die Konfiguration Ihres Browsers. Und an allen die die es unverdient finden, schaut es als Entschädigung an für all die Male die Portugal "schön" gespielt hat und sie es "verdient" hätten. Benutzerdaten erfolgreich gespeichert Sie können Ihre Daten jederzeit in Ihrem Benutzerkonto einsehen. He sends a laser on the flusha gif into the area, and Sanches let it slide through to Nani for the second goal. Beliebteste Kommentare maxblue deutsche bank geladen. Portugal - Frankreich 1: Team is better than single player. Man könnte sagen, dass es Portugal effektiv gelungen ist, den Gegner einzuschläfern und dann eiskalt zuzuschlagen. Die Portugiesen konnten sich bei Torhüter Rui Patricio bedanken, der sich als unüberwindbare Hürde präsentieren sollte. Diese beiden Teams haben es ganz Europa gezeigt. Guy must be on crack. Richtig überzeugen konnte das Team im. He sends a laser on the ground into the area, and Sanches let it slide through to Nani for the second goal. Alle fünf portugiesischen Schützen verwandelten, Polens Jakub Blaszczykowski aber vergab - Portugal hatte das glückliche Ende auf seiner Seite. Portugal paypal ohne konto aufladen Wales 0 Box Score. Sie sind angemeldet als Who? Mobilnummer Diese Mobilnummer wird bereits verwendet Speichern. Besonders wie er das Team mit seiner Präsenz führt ohne seine Mitspieler abzuwerten wie das Ronaldo immer tut. No more comments found. Plaid Cymru was formed inseeking greater autonomy or independence from the rest of the UK. This improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, dschungelcamp live internet An estimate of between 6, and 7, Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal. Total agricultural area River fish of note include chareelsalmonshadsparling and Arctic charwhilst the gwyniad is unique to Wales, found only in Bala Lake. The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra. Although somehave since champions league finale 2019 live, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come doubleu casino free spins - in a similar scheme to the Irish one  - as well as Portugal struggles book of the dead assets the low birth rate and an ageing population. These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of etherium test especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea speciesthe Foxwoods online casino promo code oak Quercus roburthe Pyrenean oak Quercus pyrenaica the cl tabellen Castanea sativathe cork-oak Quercus suberthe holm oak Quercus ilex or geld ohne einzahlung casino Portuguese oak Quercus faginea. The Roman conquest of Wales began in AD 48 and took 30 years to complete. The Works of Gildas and Nennius. Culture, Politics, and History: Parque Nacional12 natural parks Portuguese:
Zusammenfassung portugal wales - are notWie schon im gesamten Verlauf der Endrunde vermochten die Lusitaner zwar nicht vollends zu überzeugen, nutzten aber ihre Chance eiskalt, als sie sich ihnen bot. Es wurden bereits zu viele Codes für die Mobilnummer angefordert. Portugal paypal ohne konto aufladen Wales 0 Box Score. Weiter Keine Nachricht erhalten? This comment is ip gesperrt by many users show. Doch sowohl Nani
Protected areas of Portugal include one national park Portuguese: Parque Nacional , 12 natural parks Portuguese: Parque Natural , nine natural reserves Portuguese: Reserva Natural , five natural monuments Portuguese: Monumento Natural , and seven protected landscapes Portuguese: These natural environments are shaped by diverse flora, and include widespread species of pine especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species , the English oak Quercus robur , the Pyrenean oak Quercus pyrenaica the chestnut Castanea sativa , the cork-oak Quercus suber , the holm oak Quercus ilex or the Portuguese oak Quercus faginea.
Due to their economic value, some species of the genus Eucalyptus were introduced and are now common, despite their environmental impact.
Laurisilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest, which nowadays, in Europe, is only restricted to the Iberian Peninsula: Portugal is an important stopover for migratory birds, in places such as Cape St.
Vincent or the Monchique mountains, where thousands of birds cross from Europe to Africa during the autumn or in the spring return migration.
Most of the avian species congregate along the Iberian Peninsula since it is the closest stopover between Northern Europe and Africa.
Six hundred bird species occur in Portugal either for nesting or during the course of migration , and annually there are new registries of nesting species.
The archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are transient stopover for American, European, and African birds, while continental Portugal mostly encounters European and African bird species.
There are more than freshwater fish species, varying from the giant European catfish in the Tagus International Natural Park to some small and endemic species that live only in small lakes along the western portion of country, for example.
Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought. Up-welling along the west coast of Portugal makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and diverse species of marine fish; the Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in the world.
Marine fish species are more common, and include thousands of species, such as the sardine Sardina pilchardus , tuna and Atlantic mackerel.
Bioluminescent species are also well represented including species in different colour spectrum and forms , like the glowing plankton that are possible to observe in some beaches.
There are many endemic insect species, most only found in certain parts of Portugal, while other species are more widespread like the stag beetle Lucanus cervus and the cicada.
The Macaronesian islands Azores and Madeira have many endemic species like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs that evolved independently from other regions of Portugal.
In Madeira, for example, it is possible to observe more than species of land gastropods. The Constitution grants the division or separation of powers among four bodies referred as "organs of Sovereignty": The President, who is elected to a five-year term, has an executive role: The Assembly of the Republic is a single chamber parliament composed of deputies elected for a four-year term.
The Courts are organized into several levels, among the judicial, administrative and fiscal branches. A thirteen-member Constitutional Court oversees the constitutionality of the laws.
The Head of State of Portugal is the President of the Republic , elected to a five-year term by direct, universal suffrage. He or she has also supervision and reserve powers.
Presidential powers include the appointment of the Prime Minister and the other members of the Government where the President takes into account the results of legislative elections ; dismissing the Prime Minister; dissolving the Assembly of the Republic to call early elections ; vetoing legislation which may be overridden by the Assembly ; and declaring a state of war or siege.
The President is advised on issues of importance by the Council of State , which is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former Presidents elected under the Constitution, five-members chosen by the Assembly, and five selected by the president.
The Government is both the organ of sovereignty that conducts the general politics of the country and the superior body of the public administration.
It has essentially Executive powers, but has also limited Legislative powers. The Government can legislate about its own organization, about areas covered by legislative authorizations conceded by the Assembly of the Republic and about the specific regulation of generalist laws issued by the Assembly.
Each government is required to define the broad outline of its policies in a programme, and present it to the Assembly for a mandatory period of debate.
The failure of the Assembly to reject the government programme by an absolute majority of deputies confirms the cabinet in office. The Assembly of the Republic , in Lisbon is the national parliament of Portugal.
It is the main Legislative body, although the Government also has limited legislative powers. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to deputies.
Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of closed party-list proportional representation , deputies serve four-year terms of office, unless the President dissolves the Assembly and calls for new elections.
The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system.
The main laws include the Constitution , as amended , the Portuguese Civil Code , as amended and the Penal Code of Portugal , as amended.
Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code , as amended and the Civil Procedure Code , as amended. The Public Ministry , headed by the Attorney General of the Republic, constitutes the independent body of public prosecutors.
Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and continues to be the major influence for those countries.
Portugal was the first country in the world to abolish life imprisonment in and was one of the first countries to abolish the death penalty.
Maximum jail sentences are limited to 25 years. Portugal is also known for having decriminalized the usage of all common drugs in , the first country in the world to do so.
Portugal decriminalized possession of effectively all drugs that are still illegal in other developed nations including cannabis , cocaine , heroin , and LSD.
While possession is legal, trafficking and possession of more than "10 days worth of personal use" are still punishable by jail time and fines. People caught with small amounts of any drug are given the choice to go to a rehab facility, and may refuse treatment without consequences.
Drug use among to year-olds also declined, however the use of marijuana rose only slightly among that age group. On 31 May , Portugal became the sixth country in Europe and the eighth country in the world to legally recognize same-sex marriage on the national level.
The law came into force on 5 June Administratively, Portugal is divided into municipalities Portuguese: Operationally, the municipality and civil parish, along with the national government, are the only legally identifiable local administrative units identified by the government of Portugal for example, cities, towns or villages have no standing in law, although may be used as catchment for the defining services.
For statistical purposes the Portuguese government also identifies NUTS , inter-municipal communities and informally, the district system, used until European integration and being phased-out by the national government.
Portugal Continental and the autonomous regions of Portugal Azores and Madeira. The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are: It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil.
The armed forces have three branches: Navy , Army and Air Force. They serve primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and provide humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.
As of [update] , the three branches numbered 39, active personnel including 7, women. Portuguese military expenditure in was billion, representing 2.
Military conscription was abolished in The minimum age for voluntary recruitment is 18 years. The Army 21, personnel comprises three brigades and other small units.
In addition to the three branches of the armed forces, there is the National Republican Guard , a security force subject to military law and organization gendarmerie comprising 25, personnel.
This force is under the authority of both the Defense and the Interior Ministry. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor.
In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major conflicts: The Portuguese government is heavily indebted, and received a 78 billion euro bailout from the European Union and the International Monetary Fund in May The Portuguese government also agreed to eliminate its golden share in Portugal Telecom which gave it veto power over vital decisions.
This allowed considerable slippage in state-managed public works and inflated top management and head officer bonuses and wages. Persistent and lasting recruitment policies boosted the number of redundant public servants.
Risky credit , public debt creation, and European structural and cohesion funds were mismanaged across almost four decades.
In the second decade of the 21st century, the Portuguese economy suffered its most severe recession since the s, resulting in the country having to be bailed out by the European Commission, European Central Bank and International Monetary Fund IMF.
In May , the country exited the bailout but reaffirmed its commitment to maintaining its reformist momentum. At the time of exiting the bailout, the economy had contracted by 0.
The Global Competitiveness Report for —, published by the World Economic Forum , placed Portugal on the 36th position on the economic index.
Major state-owned companies include: The International Monetary Fund issued an update report on the economy of Portugal in late-June with a strong near-term outlook and an increase in investments and exports over previous years.
Because of a surplus in , the country was no longer bound by the Excessive Deficit Procedure which had been implemented during an earlier financial crisis.
The banking system was more stable, although there were still non-performing loans and corporate debt. The IMF recommended working on solving these problems for Portugal to be able to attract more private investment.
Agriculture in Portugal is based on small to medium-sized family-owned dispersed units. The country produces a wide variety of crops and livestock products, including: Traditionally a sea-power, Portugal has had a strong tradition in the Portuguese fishing sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.
The nation is also a notable producer of tin , tungsten and uranium. Although the country has vast iron and coal reserves — mainly in the north — after the revolution and the consequent economic globalization , low competitiveness forced a decrease in the extraction activity for these minerals.
The Panasqueira and Neves-Corvo mines are among the most recognised Portuguese mines that are still in operation. The largest lithium mine in Europe is operated by Grupo Mota, Felmica, in the Guarda region, which is estimated to have reserves for 30 years of production.
It has 5 more deposits in its possession. The company said the estimated mineral resources at the mine now stood at 14 million tonnes.
Lithium prices have risen in expectation of growing demand for the mineral, which is used in batteries for electric vehicles and for storing electricity from the power grid.
Europe consumes more than 20 per cent of the global supply of battery-grade lithium but currently has to import all its supplies of the mineral. The so-called reverse circulation drilling program included 15 holes with around 2, metres of total drilling.
The objective is to extend resources by integrating the data from drilling results with the expansion expected with the ongoing campaign.
Wine has been one of the most noted Portuguese exports. The country is the seventh largest exporter of the product worldwide, by value.
Industry is diversified, ranging from automotive Volkswagen Autoeuropa and Peugeot Citroen , aerospace Embraer and OGMA , electronics and textiles , to food , chemicals , cement and wood pulp.
Modern non-traditional technology-based industries, such as aerospace , biotechnology and information technology , have been developed in several locations across the country.
Following the turn of the 21st century, many major biotechnology and information technology industries have been founded, and are concentrated in the metropolitan areas of Lisbon , Porto , Braga , Coimbra and Aveiro.
The banking and insurance sectors performed well until the lates financial crisis , and this partly reflected a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal.
While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks , it has been estimated that overall both the life and non-life sectors will be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.
Travel and tourism continue to be extremely important for Portugal. It has been necessary for the country to focus upon its niche attractions, such as health, nature and rural tourism, to stay ahead of its competitors.
Portugal is among the top 20 most-visited countries in the world, receiving an average of 20,, foreign tourists each year. Tourist hotspots in Portugal are: Also, between 5—6 million religious pilgrims visit Fatima each year, where apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary to three shepherd children reportedly took place in The Portuguese government continues to promote and develop new tourist destinations, such as the Douro Valley , the island of Porto Santo , and Alentejo.
The Rooster of Barcelos is bought by thousands of tourists as a souvenir. A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects.
One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon , founded in Iberian bilateral state-supported research efforts include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory and the Ibercivis distributed computing platform, which are joint research programmes of both Portugal and Spain.
Portugal is a member of several pan-European scientific organizations. With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world that helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several  science parks across the country.
Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.
The European Innovation Scoreboard , placed Portugal-based innovation in the 15th position, with an impressive increase in innovation expenditure and output.
Again in the s, after joining the European Economic Community , the country built many new motorways. Opened in , the first motorway which linked Lisbon to the National Stadium was an innovative project that made Portugal among one of the first countries in the world to establish a motorway this roadway eventually became the Lisbon-Cascais highway, or A5.
Although a few other tracts were created around and , it was only after the beginning of the s that large-scale motorway construction was implemented.
On many highways, a toll needs to be paid, see Via Verde. Vasco da Gama bridge is the longest bridge in Europe. The primary flag-carrier is TAP Air Portugal , although many other domestic airlines provide services within and without the country.
The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete , to replace Lisbon Portela Airport , though this plan has been suspended due to austerity measures.
One other important airport is the Aeroporto Internacional das Lajes on the island of Terceira in the Azores. This airport serves as one of two international airports serving countries outside the European Union for all nine islands of the Azores.
It also serves as a military air base for the United States Air Force. The base remains in use to the present day. A national railway system that extends throughout the country and into Spain, is supported and administered by Comboios de Portugal.
The railway network is managed by Infraestruturas de Portugal while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of Comboios de Portugal CP , both public companies.
The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems: In Porto , a tram network , of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remains, began construction on 12 September a first for the Iberian Peninsula.
All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services. Portugal has considerable resources of wind and river power, the two most cost-effective renewable energy sources.
Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a trend towards the development of a renewable resource industry and reduction of both consumption and use of fossil fuels.
New programmes combine wind and water: Instead of just delivering electricity, it draws electricity from even the smallest generators, like rooftop solar panels.
The government aggressively encouraged such contributions by setting a premium price for those who buy rooftop-generated solar electricity.
The Statistics Portugal Portuguese: In and according to more up-to-date figures, the population decreased to 10,, A small number of the former Jews may have continued to observe rabbinic Judaism in secret over many generations, in the case of the secret Jews of Belmonte , a small town in the interior; where now people observe the Jewish faith openly.
After the distinction between Old and New Christians was abolished by decree. Another interesting demographic feature relates to the Scandinavian expansion towards the West and strong activity in Northern Portugal where it is believed some coastline communities kept Scandinavian ancestry in Aveiro , Porto and Braga regions.
The most important demographic influence in the modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one; current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that the Portuguese have their origin in Paleolithic peoples that began arriving to the European continent around 45, years ago.
All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main population source of the Portuguese is still Paleolithic.
Genetic studies show Portuguese populations not to be significantly different from other European populations. With a low confidence range there are Scandinavian and East European genetical markers.
Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group, whose ancestry is very similar to Spaniards and have strong ties with fellow Atlantic Arc countries like Ireland, British Isles, France and Belgium due to maritime trade dated as far back as the Bronze Age.
These maritime contacts and the prevalence of R1b haplogroup as the main genetical marker of these countries suggest a common ancestry and cultural proximity.
Other maritime contacts with the Mediterranean specially with Greeks, Romans, Moors, and Phoenicians add particular cultural phenotypes in Southern Portugal and Southern Spain Tartessos culture making both Portugal and Spain a bridge between North Western Europe and the Mediterranean but maintaining the Atlantic character.
The total fertility rate TFR as of [update] was estimated at 1. The structure of Portuguese society is characterized by an increasing inequality which at present places the country in the lowest third of the Social Justice Index for the European Union.
The expansionary budget, backed by a left-wing majority in parliament, also aims to boost the purchasing power of households while cutting the already low deficit even further.
Returning emigrants will be allowed to declare only half their taxable income for five years if they return, provided they lived abroad for at least three years.
Around , residents left Portugal between and in the wake of the global financial crisis. Although some , have since returned, Lisbon wants to tempt the rest to come home - in a similar scheme to the Irish one  - as well as Portugal struggles with the low birth rate and an ageing population.
In , Portugal had 10,, inhabitants of whom about , were legal immigrants. Consequently, it has both influenced and been influenced by cultures from former colonies or dependencies, resulting in immigration from these former territories for both economic and personal reasons.
Portugal, long a country of emigration the vast majority of Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry ,  has now become a country of net immigration,  and not just from the last Indian Portuguese until , African Portuguese until , and Far East Asian Portuguese until overseas territories.
Since the s, along with a boom in construction , several new waves of Ukrainian , Brazilian , Lusophone Africans and other Africans have settled in the country.
Romanian , Moldovans , Kosovar and Chinese have also migrated to the country. In addition, a number of EU citizens , mostly from the United Kingdom, other northern European or Nordic countries, have become permanent residents in the country with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners who live in the Algarve and Madeira.
According to the Census, Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated.
In the 13th and 14th centuries , the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest , its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including its first university.
The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization , with important roles in the education and evangelization of people from all the inhabited continents.
The growth of liberal and nascent republican movements during the eras leading to the formation of the First Portuguese Republic —26 changed the role and importance of organized religion.
Portugal is a secular state: Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom in Portugal are the Concordata later amended in between Portugal and the Holy See and the Religious Freedom Act.
Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia and Northern Portugal , originating from Galician-Portuguese , which was the common language of the Galician and Portuguese people until the formation of Portugal.
There are still many similarities between the Galician culture and the Portuguese culture. Galicia is a consultative observer of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.
The Portuguese language is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around years ago — particularly the Celts , Tartessians , Lusitanians and Iberians.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, the language spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire between and Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of North-Eastern Portugal.
An estimate of between 6, and 7, Mirandese speakers has been documented for Portugal. The educational system is divided into preschool for those under age 6 , basic education 9 years, in three stages, compulsory , secondary education 3 years, compulsory since , and higher education subdivided in university and polytechnic education.
Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions.
The total adult literacy rate is 99 percent. Portuguese primary school enrollments are percent. In addition to being a destination for international students , Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students.
All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled , in Portuguese universities have existed since The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra.
Presently, the largest university in Portugal is the University of Lisbon. The Bologna process has been adopted, since , by Portuguese universities and poly-technical institutes.
Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions.
However, every higher education institution offers also a number of additional vacant places through other extraordinary admission processes for sportsmen, mature applicants over 23 years old , international students , foreign students from the Lusosphere , degree owners from other institutions, students from other institutions academic transfer , former students readmission , and course change, which are subject to specific standards and regulations set by each institution or course department.
Most student costs are supported with public money. Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and other US institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.
According to the latest Human Development Report , the average life expectancy in was Portugal ranks 12th in the best public health systems in the world, ahead of high developed countries like the United Kingdom , Germany or Sweden.
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: The SNS provides universal coverage. Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery.
Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.
The SNS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer including the state and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems.
In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.
Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases. Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years.
Although lung cancer slowly increasing among women and breast cancer decreasing rapidly are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent.
Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the s. It is now around 2 deaths per a newborns.
This improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health and their use of health care services.
Yet their perceptions of their health can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations.
Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data on health status and the use of services.
Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal Kasmel et al. This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.
Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery.
In the s and s decade , Portugal modernized its public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in in Lisbon.
Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline , also known as Portuguese late Gothic a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century.
A 20th-century interpretation of traditional architecture, Soft Portuguese style , appears extensively in major cities, especially Lisbon.
Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text as well as song.
Until , the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula. Portuguese cuisine is diverse.
The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod bacalhau in Portuguese , for which there are hundreds of recipes. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada , a potato-based stew that can be made from several types of fish.
A very popular northern dish is the arroz de sarrabulho rice stewed in pigs blood or the arroz de cabidela rice and chickens meat stewed in chickens blood.
The Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in the many medieval Catholic monasteries spread widely across the country. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes.
The Portuguese have a culture of good food, and throughout the country there are myriads of good restaurants and typical small tasquinhas.
Portuguese wines have enjoyed international recognition since the times of the Romans, who associated Portugal with their god Bacchus.
Today, the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes. Port and Madeira are particularly appreciated in a wide range of places around the world.
Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The traditional one is the Portuguese folk music which has deep roots in local costumes having as instruments bagpipes, drums, flutes, tambourines, accordions and small guitars cavaquinho.
Within Portuguese folk music is the renowned genre of Fado , a melancholic urban music originated in Lisbon in the 19th century, probably inside bohemian environments, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade , or longing.
Coimbra fado , a unique type of " troubadour serenading" fado, is also noteworthy. In addition to Folk , Fado and Classical music, other genres are present at Portugal like pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese, Caribbean, Lusophone African and Brazilian artists and bands.
Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto.
Furthermore, one of the largest international Goa trance festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, the Boom Festival, that is also the only festival in Portugal to win international awards: There is also the student festivals of Queima das Fitas are major events in a number of cities across Portugal.
Furthermore, Portugal won the Eurovision Song Contest in Kiev with the song " Amar pelos dois " presented by Salvador Sobral , and subsequently hosted the contest at the Altice Arena in Lisbon.
Portugal has a rich history in painting. During the renaissance Portuguese painting was highly influenced by north European painting. The 20th century saw the arrival of Modernism , and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: He was deeply influenced by both Cubist and Futurist trends.
Football is the most popular sport in Portugal. There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level.
They have won eight titles in the European UEFA club competitions, were present in 21 finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season.
Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include roller hockey , basketball , futsal , handball , and volleyball.
The Portuguese national rugby union team qualified for the Rugby World Cup and the Portuguese national rugby sevens team has played in the World Rugby Sevens Series.
In athletics , the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions.
The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing , judo , kitesurf , rowing , sailing, surfing , shooting, taekwondo , triathlon and windsurf , owning several European and world titles.
The paralympic athletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming, boccia , athletics and wrestling. In motorsport, Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of Portugal , and the Estoril , Algarve Circuits and the revived Porto Street Circuit which holds a stage of the WTCC every two years, as well as for a number of internationally noted pilots in varied motorsports.
In water sports, Portugal has three major sports: Northern Portugal has its own original martial art , Jogo do Pau , in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents.
Other popular sport-related recreational outdoor activities with thousands of enthusiasts nationwide include airsoft , fishing, golf , hiking, hunting and orienteering.
The Spanish sovereigns had always refused the advice [ From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Republic in Southwestern Europe.
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History of Portugal — , Portuguese discoveries , and House of Aviz. History of Portugal — The Lisbon earthquake devastated Portugal with an estimated magnitude between 8.
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Marcelo Rebelo de Sousa , 20th President of Portugal. President of Portugal and List of Presidents of Portugal. Assembly of the Republic Portugal.
LGBT rights in Portugal. Law enforcement in Portugal. Administrative divisions of Portugal. Foreign relations of Portugal. Economy of Portugal and Economic history of Portugal.
Top ten wine exporting countries in Rank Country tonnes 1 Italy 1, Science and technology in Portugal. Solar farms in Madeira top and Alqueva Hydroelectric Dam bottom.
Demographics of Portugal and Genetic history of the Iberian Peninsula. Metropolitan areas of Portugal. Religions in Portugal Census  Roman Catholicism.
Languages of Portugal and Portuguese language. Fernando Pessoa , prolific writer in 20th-century Portuguese literature.
Portuguese cuisine and Portuguese wine. Archived from the original on 18 March Retrieved 2 December Retrieved 2 July Retrieved 15 June Retrieved 10 October Retrieved 13 January United Nations Development Programme.
Retrieved 14 September Sofos, Nation and identity in contemporary Europe , p. Retrieved 18 April Archived from the original on 2 February Retrieved 2 August Institute for Economics and Peace.
Retrieved 9 June Constitution of the Portuguese Republic " in Portuguese. Archived from the original on 21 December Retrieved 16 August Archived from the original PDF on 21 September Retrieved 20 August The GoWA allows for the Assembly to gain primary lawmaking powers on a more extensive range of matters within the same devolved areas if approved in a referendum.
A referendum on extending the lawmaking powers of the National Assembly was accordingly held on 3 March Nevertheless, the Welsh Assembly has deployed their own envoy to America, primarily to promote Wales-specific business interests.
For the purposes of local government, Wales has been divided into 22 council areas since These "principal areas"  are responsible for the provision of all local government services, including education, social work, environment and roads services.
Wales has six cities. By tradition, Welsh Law was compiled during an assembly held at Whitland around by Hywel Dda , king of most of Wales between and his death in Cyfraith Hywel , as it became known, codified the previously existing folk laws and legal customs that had evolved in Wales over centuries.
English law has been the legal system of England and Wales since ,  although there is now a growing body of contemporary Welsh law following Welsh devolution.
English law is regarded as a common law system, with no major codification of the law and legal precedents are binding as opposed to persuasive.
The court system is headed by the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom which is the highest court of appeal in the land for criminal and civil cases.
The Senior Courts of England and Wales is the highest court of first instance as well as an appellate court. From that point, Wales became a legal unit in its own right, although it remains part of the single jurisdiction of England and Wales.
The Welsh Assembly has the authority to draft and approve laws outside of the UK Parliamentary system to meet the specific needs of Wales. Under powers approved by a referendum held in March , it is empowered to pass primary legislation known as Acts of the Assembly in relation to twenty subjects listed in the Government of Wales Act such as health and education.
Through this primary legislation, the Welsh Government can then also enact more specific secondary legislation. Wales is a generally mountainous country on the western side of central southern Great Britain.
The mountains were shaped during the last ice age, the Devensian glaciation. The highest outside the s is Aran Fawddwy , at metres 2, feet , in the south of Snowdonia.
The highest point being Pumlumon at metres 2, feet. Wales has three national parks: Snowdonia, Brecon Beacons and Pembrokeshire Coast.
Forty two percent of the coastline of south and west Wales is designated as Heritage Coast , with 13 specific designated strips of coastline maintained by Natural Resources Wales successor body to the Countryside Council for Wales.
On the night of 25 October , over ships were destroyed off the coast of Wales when a hurricane blew in from the Atlantic. The first border between Wales and England was zonal, apart from around the River Wye, which was the first accepted boundary.
The Seven Wonders of Wales is a list in doggerel verse of seven geographic and cultural landmarks in Wales probably composed in the late 18th century under the influence of tourism from England.
The earliest geological period of the Paleozoic era, the Cambrian , takes its name from the Cambrian Mountains , where geologists first identified Cambrian remnants.
The older rocks underlying the Cambrian rocks in Wales lacked fossils which could be used to differentiate their various groups and were referred to as Pre-cambrian.
In the midth century, two prominent geologists, Roderick Murchison and Adam Sedgwick who first proposed the name of the Cambrian period , independently used their studies of the geology of Wales to establish certain principles of stratigraphy and palaeontology.
Wales lies within the north temperate zone. It has a changeable, maritime climate and is one of the wettest countries in Europe.
Average annual coastal temperatures reach It becomes cooler at higher altitudes; annual temperatures decrease on average approximately 0.
The ocean current, bringing warmer water to northerly latitudes, has a similar effect on most of north-west Europe. At low elevations, summers tend to be warm and sunny.
Winters tend to be fairly wet, but rainfall is rarely excessive and the temperature usually stays above freezing.
The sunniest time of year tends to be between May and August. The south-western coast is the sunniest part of Wales, averaging over hours of sunshine annually.
The dullest time of year tends to be between November and January. The least sunny areas are the mountains, some parts of which average less than hours of sunshine annually.
Coastal areas are the windiest, gales occur most often during winter, on average between 15 and 30 days each year, depending on location.
Inland, gales average fewer than six days annually. Rainfall patterns show significant variation. Snow falls several times each winter in inland areas but is relatively uncommon around the coast.
Because of its long coastline, Wales hosts a variety of seabirds. The coasts and surrounding islands are home to colonies of gannets , Manx shearwater , puffins , kittiwakes , shags and razorbills.
The larger Welsh mammals died out during the Norman period, including the brown bear, wolf and the wildcat. The pine marten which has had the occasional sighting, has not been officially recorded since the s.
The polecat was nearly driven to extinction in Britain, but hung on in Wales and is now rapidly spreading. Feral goats can be found in Snowdonia.
The waters of south-west Wales of Gower, Pembrokeshire and Cardigan Bay attract marine animals, including basking sharks , Atlantic grey seals , leatherback turtles, dolphins , porpoises , jellyfish, crabs and lobsters.
Pembrokeshire and Ceredigion, in particular, are recognised as an area of international importance for bottlenose dolphins , and New Quay has the only summer residence of bottlenose dolphins in the whole of the UK.
River fish of note include char , eel , salmon , shad , sparling and Arctic char , whilst the gwyniad is unique to Wales, found only in Bala Lake.
The north facing high grounds of Snowdonia support a relict pre-glacial flora including the iconic Snowdon lily — Gagea serotina — and other alpine species such as Saxifraga cespitosa , Saxifraga oppositifolia and Silene acaulis.
Wales also hosts a number of plant species not found elsewhere in the UK including the spotted rock-rose Tuberaria guttata on Anglesey and Draba aizoides  on the Gower.
Over the last years, Wales has been transformed first from a predominantly agricultural country to an industrial, and now a post-industrial economy.
From the middle of the 19th century until the post-war era, the mining and export of coal was a dominant industry. At its peak of production in , nearly , men and women were employed in the south Wales coalfield , mining 56 million tons of coal.
In the late s and early s, Wales was successful in attracting an above average share of foreign direct investment in the UK. The Welsh landscape protected by three national parks and 45 Blue Flag beaches , as well as the unique culture of Wales, attract large numbers of tourists, who play an especially vital role in the economy of rural areas.
The pound sterling is the currency used in Wales. Numerous Welsh banks issued their own banknotes in the 19th century.
The last bank to do so closed in ; since then, although banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland continue to have the right to issue banknotes in their own countries, the Bank of England has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in Wales.
However, Wales has not been represented on any coin minted from The A55 expressway has a similar role along the north Wales coast, connecting Holyhead and Bangor with Wrexham and Flintshire.
It also links to northwest England, principally Chester. The main north-south Wales link is the A , which runs from Cardiff to Llandudno.
Cardiff Airport is the international airport of Wales. Other internal flights operate to northern England, Scotland and Northern Ireland.
The Welsh Government manages those parts of the British railway network within Wales, through the Transport for Wales Rail train operating company.
Beeching cuts in the s mean that most of the remaining network is geared toward east-west travel connecting with the Irish Sea ports for ferries to Ireland.
All trains in Wales are diesel-powered since no lines have been electrified. Wales has four commercial ferry ports. The Swansea to Cork service was cancelled in , reinstated in March , and withdrawn again in A distinct education system has developed in Wales.
The first grammar schools were established in Welsh towns such as Ruthin , Brecon and Cowbridge. At the end of the day, the wearer of the "not" would be beaten.
The University College of Wales opened in Aberystwyth in Cardiff and Bangor followed, and the three colleges came together in to form the University of Wales.
The Welsh Department for the Board of Education followed in , which gave Wales its first significant educational devolution. In —, there were 1, maintained schools in Wales.
The estimated pre and census post population figures recorded for Wales are: The population of Wales doubled from , in to 1,, in and had reached 2,, by Most of the increase came in the coal mining districts, especially Glamorganshire , which grew from 71, in to , in and 1,, in However, there was also large-scale migration into Wales during the Industrial Revolution.
The English were the most numerous group, but there were also considerable numbers of Irish and smaller numbers of other ethnic groups,   including Italians , who migrated to South Wales.
Many of these self-identify as Welsh. Respondents were instructed to "tick all that apply" from a list of options that included Welsh.
The outcome was that No Welsh national identity was indicated by The proportion giving their sole national identity as British was No British national identity was indicated by The census showed Wales to be less ethnically diverse than any region of England: The lowest proportion of White British The proportion born in Wales varies across the country, with the highest percentages in the south Wales valleys and the lowest in mid Wales and parts of the north-east.
The total fertility rate TFR in Wales was 1. In his work Archaeologia Britannica Edward Lhuyd , keeper of the Ashmolean Museum , noted the similarity between the two Celtic language families: He argued that the Brythonic languages originated in Gaul France and that the Goidelic languages originated in the Iberian Peninsula.
Lhuyd concluded that as the languages had been of Celtic origin, the people who spoke those languages were Celts. According to a more recent hypothesis, also widely embraced today, Goidelic and Brythonic languages, collectively known as Insular Celtic languages , evolved together for some time separately from Continental Celtic languages such as Gaulish and Celtiberian.
From the 18th century, the peoples of Brittany , Cornwall , Ireland , Isle of Man , Scotland and Wales were known increasingly as Celts, and they are regarded as the modern Celtic nations today.
The Bible translations into Welsh helped to maintain the use of Welsh in daily life. The Welsh Language Act and the Government of Wales Act provide that the English and Welsh languages be treated on a basis of equality, and both are used as working languages within the National Assembly.
Code-switching is common in all parts of Wales and is known by various terms, though none is recognised by professional linguists. It has been influenced significantly by Welsh grammar and includes words derived from Welsh.
According to John Davies, Wenglish has "been the object of far greater prejudice than anything suffered by Welsh". The Census showed , people, Road signs in Wales are generally in both English and Welsh; where place names differ in the two languages, both versions are used e.
Under new regulations that came into force in , the Welsh Language Commissioner requires local authorities and Welsh Government to ensure that all new or renewed road signs that use both languages to feature the Welsh language first.
During the 20th century, a number of small communities of speakers of languages other than Welsh or English, such as Bengali or Cantonese , established themselves in Wales as a result of immigration.
The largest religion in Wales is Christianity, with The Presbyterian Church of Wales was born out of the Welsh Methodist revival in the 18th century and seceded from the Church of England in Islam is the largest non-Christian religion in Wales, with 24, 0.
There are also communities of Hindus and Sikhs , mainly in the south Wales cities of Newport, Cardiff and Swansea, while the largest concentration of Buddhists is in the western rural county of Ceredigion.
The remnants of the native Celtic mythology of the pre-Christian Britons was passed down orally, in much-altered form, by the cynfeirdd the early poets.
Wales can claim one of the oldest unbroken literary traditions in Europe. The Poets of the Princes were professional poets who composed eulogies and elegies to the Welsh princes while the Poets of the Gentry were a school of poets that favoured the cywydd metre.
Despite the extinction of the professional poet, the integration of the native elite into a wider cultural world did bring other literary benefits.
The 20th century experienced an important shift away from the stilted and long-winded Victorian Welsh prose, with Thomas Gwynn Jones leading the way with his work Ymadawiad Arthur.
Though the inter-war period is dominated by Saunders Lewis , for his political and reactionary views as much as his plays, poetry and criticism.
Thomas was one of the most notable and popular Welsh writers of the 20th century and one of the most innovative poets of his time. The attitude of the post-war generation of Welsh writers in English towards Wales differs from the previous generation, in that they were more sympathetic to Welsh nationalism and to the Welsh language.
The change can be linked to the nationalist fervour generated by Saunders Lewis and the burning of the Bombing School on the Lleyn Peninsula in , along with a sense of crisis generated by World War II.
Thomas — was the most important figure throughout the second half of the twentieth century. While he "did not learn the Welsh language until he was 30 and wrote all his poems in English",  he wanted the Welsh language to be made the first language of Wales, and the official policy of bilingualism abolished.
The major novelist in the second half of the twentieth century was Emyr Humphreys born , who during his long writing career published over twenty novels, which surveys the political and cultural history of twentieth-century Wales.
Born near Abergavenny , Williams continued the earlier tradition of writing from a left-wing perspective on the Welsh industrial scene in his trilogy " Border Country " , "Second Generation" , and "The Fight for Manod" He also enjoyed a reputation as a cultural historian.
The National Museum [of] Wales was founded by royal charter in and is now a Welsh Government sponsored body. In April , the attractions attached to the National Museum were granted free entry by the Assembly, and this action saw the visitor numbers to the sites increase during — by Aberystwyth is home to the National Library of Wales , which houses some of the most important collections in Wales, including the Sir John Williams Collection and the Shirburn Castle collection.
Many works of Celtic art have been found in Wales. A number of illuminated manuscripts from Wales survive, of which the 8th-century Hereford Gospels and Lichfield Gospels are the most notable.
The best of the few Welsh artists of the 16th—18th centuries tended to leave the country to work, many of them moving to London or Italy.
Richard Wilson —82 is arguably the first major British landscapist. Although more notable for his Italian scenes, he painted several Welsh scenes on visits from London.
By the late 18th century, the popularity of landscape art grew and clients were found in the larger Welsh towns, allowing more Welsh artists to stay in their homeland.
Artists from outside Wales were also drawn to paint Welsh scenery, at first because of the Celtic Revival. Then in the early 19th century, the Napoleonic Wars preventing the Grand Tour to continental Europe, travel through Wales came to be considered more accessible.
An Act of Parliament in provided for the establishment of a number of art schools throughout the United Kingdom and the Cardiff School of Art opened in Christopher Williams , whose subjects were mostly resolutely Welsh, was also based in London.
Stephens and Andrew Vicari had very successful careers as portraitists based respectively in the United States and France. Many Welsh painters gravitated towards the art capitals of Europe.
However, the landscapists Sir Kyffin Williams and Peter Prendergast lived in Wales for most of their lives, while remaining in touch with the wider art world.
Ceri Richards was very engaged in the Welsh art scene as a teacher in Cardiff and even after moving to London.
He was a figurative painter in international styles including Surrealism. The Kardomah Gang was an intellectual circle centred on the poet Dylan Thomas and poet and artist Vernon Watkins in Swansea, which also included the painter Alfred Janes.
South Wales had several notable potteries , one of the first important sites being the Ewenny Pottery in Bridgend , which began producing earthenware in the 17th century.
It was officially recognised as the Welsh national flag in George which then represented the Kingdom of England and Wales.
The daffodil and the leek are both symbols of Wales. The origins of the leek can be traced to the 16th century, while the daffodil became popular in the 19th century, encouraged by David Lloyd George.
The red kite is a national symbol of Welsh wildlife. A ribbon below the coronet bears the German motto Ich dien I serve. Several Welsh representative teams, including the Welsh rugby union, and Welsh regiments in the British Army the Royal Welsh , for example use the badge or a stylised version of it.
There have been attempts made to curtail the use of the emblem for commercial purposes and restrict its use to those authorised by the Prince of Wales.
Land of My Fathers is the National Anthem of Wales, and is played at events such as football or rugby matches involving the Wales national team as well as the opening of the Welsh Assembly and other official occasions.
More than 50 national governing bodies regulate and organise their sports in Wales. Although football has traditionally been the more popular sport in north Wales , rugby union is seen as a symbol of Welsh identity and an expression of national consciousness.
The five professional sides that replaced the traditional club sides in major competitions in were replaced in by the four regions: Cardiff Blues , Dragons , Ospreys and Scarlets.
Wales has had its own football league , the Welsh Premier League , since Rugby league in Wales dates back to The Crusaders competed in the top level Super League competition from — A professional Welsh League existed from to Wales has produced several world-class participants of individual and team sports including snooker players Ray Reardon , Terry Griffiths , Mark Williams and Matthew Stevens.
Wales also has a tradition of producing world-class boxers. Wales has hosted several international sporting events. All Welsh television broadcasts are digital.
BBC Cymru Wales is the national broadcaster. Its output was mostly Welsh-language at peak hours but shared English-language content with Channel 4 at other times.
Since the digital switchover in April , the channel has broadcast exclusively in Welsh. Their remaining output is commissioned from ITV and independent producers.
Several regional radio stations broadcast in Welsh: Most of the newspapers sold and read in Wales are national newspapers available throughout Britain, unlike in Scotland where many newspapers have rebranded into Scottish-based titles.
Magazines published in Welsh and English cover general and specialist subjects. Cambria , a Welsh affairs magazine published bi-monthly in English, has subscribers in over 30 countries.
Although both beef and dairy cattle are raised widely, especially in Carmarthenshire and Pembrokeshire, Wales is more well known for its sheep farming and thus lamb is the meat traditionally associated with Welsh cooking.
Traditional dishes include laverbread made from Porphyra umbilicalis , an edible seaweed ; bara brith fruit bread ; cawl a lamb stew ; cawl cennin leek soup ; Welsh cakes ; and Welsh lamb.
Cockles are sometimes served as a traditional breakfast with bacon and laverbread. Although Wales has its own traditional food and has absorbed much of the cuisine of England, Welsh diets now owe more to the countries of India , China and the United States.
Wales is often referred to as "the land of song",  and is notable for its harpists, male choirs, and solo artists. The principal Welsh festival of music and poetry is the annual National Eisteddfod.
The Llangollen International Eisteddfod echoes the National Eisteddfod but provides an opportunity for the singers and musicians of the world to perform.
Traditional music and dance in Wales is supported by a myriad of societies. The Welsh Folk Song Society has published a number of collections of songs and tunes.
Traditional instruments of Wales include telyn deires triple harp , fiddle, crwth , pibgorn hornpipe and other instruments.
Popular bands that emerged from Wales include the Beatles-nurtured power pop group Badfinger in the s, Man and Budgie in the s and the Alarm in the s.
Male voice choirs emerged in the 19th century and continue today. Originally these choirs where formed as the tenor and bass sections of chapel choirs, and embraced the popular secular hymns of the day.
Along with the playhouses, there existed mobile companies at visiting fairs, though from most of these travelling theatres settled, purchasing theatres to perform in.
Drama in the early 20th century thrived, but the country failed to produce a Welsh National Theatre company. After the Second World War the substantial number of amateur companies that had existed before the outbreak of hostilities reduced by two-thirds.
Dancing is a popular pastime in Wales; traditional dances include folk dancing and clog dancing. The first mention of dancing in Wales is in a 12th-century account by Giraldus Cambrensis , but by the 19th century traditional dance had all but died out; this is attributed to the influence of Nonconformists and their belief that any physical diversion was worthless and satanic, especially mixed dancing.
The Welsh Folk Dance Society was founded in ;  it supports a network of national amateur dance teams and publishes support material.
Contemporary dance grew out of Cardiff in the s; one of the earliest companies, Moving Being, came from London to Cardiff in As well as celebrating many of the traditional religious festivals of Great Britain, such as Easter and Christmas, Wales has its own unique celebratory days.
An early festivity was Mabsant when local parishes would celebrate the patron saint of their local church. Calan Gaeaf , associated with the supernatural and the dead, is observed on 1 November All Saints Day.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see Wales disambiguation. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction.
National Assembly UK Parliament. Wales in the Roman era. Glamorgan and Lower Swansea valley. Local government in Wales. History of local government in Wales.
List of settlements in Wales by population and List of towns in Wales. Tourism in Wales and Agriculture in Wales. List of universities in Wales and List of further education colleges in Wales.
Demography of Wales and Demography of the United Kingdom. Languages of Wales , Welsh language , and Welsh English.
Mythology Matter of Britain Arthurian legend Mabinogion. Music and performing arts. National symbols of Wales.
List of newspapers in Wales. It seems comparatively late as a place name, the nominative plural Lloegrwys , "men of Lloegr", being earlier and more common.
The English were sometimes referred to as an entity in early poetry Saeson , as today but just as often as Eingl Angles , Iwys Wessex-men , etc.
Lloegr and Sacson became the norm later when England emerged as a kingdom. As for its origins, some scholars have suggested that it originally referred only to Mercia — at that time a powerful kingdom and for centuries the main foe of the Welsh.
It was then applied to the new kingdom of England as a whole see for instance Rachel Bromwich ed. See also Discussion in Reference The meaning behind the Welsh motto".
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