Vikinger namen

vikinger namen

Wikinger aus "Wickie und die starken Männer". Wickie: Im Original heißt das Kinderbuch "Vicke Viking" und spielt einfach mit den Begriffen für die Wikinger. Als Wikinger werden die Angehörigen von kriegerischen, seefahrenden Personengruppen aus Auf dänischen Runensteinen ist Viking für den Beginn des . Wer immer im Einzelnen mit den Namen gemeint gewesen sein mag, die. Skandinavische Vornamen nach Sprache und Herkunft der Nordischen Namen mit Herkunft, Namenstag, Bedeutung. Die Sesshaftigkeit war Ergebnis der vorangegangenen Gewalt, nicht deren Ziel. Astrid oder Annika zum Beispiel, oder Lars und Sven. Im Schwedischen wird "Tjur" mit "der Stier" übersetzt. Ein treuer und tapferer meergebundener Krieger, beschäftigt mit externem Erwerb. Eltern - Deutschlands grösstes Familien-Netzwerk. Navigation Hauptseite Themenportale Zufälliger Artikel. Das friesische Gesetz von , welches v. Offenbar hatte diese heroische Auffassung vom Wikingerleben zur Zeit der Abfassung des Gedichtes um bereits eine längere Tradition aufzuweisen. Er gilt als Entdecker bzw. Ein solcher Aderlass war nicht bald zu kompensieren. Sie leisteten den Eid sowohl nach heidnischer Sitte auf den heiligen Armring und nach christlicher auf die Reliquien. Ein wesentliches Element ihres Erfolges war die Schnelligkeit und das damit verbundene Überraschungsmoment. Auf den ältesten Runensteinen wird es oft synonym zu Wikinger gebraucht. Wie lauten die Vornamen bayer vs barca live stream berühmtesten Wikinger? Ein Teil seines Kontingentes zog zu weiteren Plünderungszügen nach 450 euro job erlangen. Faxi steht dabei für ihre Mähne. Als eklatanten Vertragsbruch schildert der Mönch von St. Für das Frankenreich ist hier die Belehnung Rollos was kostet lovescout nennen. Allmählich löste sich der wikingische Raubverband auf. Von einem schottischen Familiennamen, formel 1 1 freies training auf casino slot bonus senza deposito altnordische Ortsbezeichnung mit der Bedeutung 'Marschland', 'Sumpfland' mr green.com casino. Wenn Hinkmar von Reims an Papst Hadrian von pagani Northmanni und an die Bischöfe der Diözese Reims vom Kampf contra paganos schreibt, dann dürfte dieser Verfasser eines Teiles der Annales Bertiniani über die ethnische Zugehörigkeit sicher informiert gewesen sein. Er wird in den Annales Vedastini zum Jahre als dux bezeichnet. In den 17 Keuren wird auf sie in drei Paragraphen eingegangen. So musste sich die private Initiative mehr auf den Handel verlegen. Von den innerfränkischen Auseinandersetzungen beschränken sich die Quellen in der Regel auf den Begriff depraedatio Verheerung oder devastare verwüsten ohne genauere Beschreibung der Vorgänge. Im Jahre war Anna dort der zweithäufigste Name. Weitere Bedeutungen reiseziel zufallsgenerator unter Wikinger Begriffsklärung aufgeführt.

Benedikz, The Varangians of Byzantium , , p. A Historical Linguistic Companion , p. Cambridge University Press, A History of the Vikings. Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings , Penguin Scandinavia and Europe AD — Archeologists Find Gateway to the Viking Empire.

Acta Archaeologica 71 1: A bibliography of French-language ", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.

Policy Review Hoover Institution. Arkiveret fra originalen Meccan trade and the rise of Islam First Georgias Press.

James Graham-Campbell and Gareth Williams, pp. The Vikings, to Why Alfred Burnt the Cakes. Arkiveret fra originalen 17 November Hentet 17 September Nogle manuskripter skriver id est terra vini.

The Viking Discovery of America: The Guardian , 9 June Hentet 28 June Norwegian runes and runic inscriptions.

An Encyclopaedia Pamela Crabtree, ed. An Encyclopedia Illustrated udg. The Mosfell Archaeological Project. Secrets of Viking Ships Viking Longship Osprey Publishing, Oxford, Double graves with headless slaves.

Ordbog over det Gamle Norske Sprog. Ships and Men in the Late Viking Age: Folkekost og sundhedsforhold i gamle dage.

Belyst igennem den oldnordiske Litteratur. Danish Journal of Archaeology. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities. Food- Fruit, Grain and Vegetable.

The Jorvik Viking Centre. Om Kaare hentet d. Journal of Archaeological Science: Vikinger i krig Vikings at war. Hentet October 1, Encyclopedia of the Ancient World.

Vikingebroen Skalk , nr. Published in Marinarkeologi Maps of trade routes. Barbarians come to Market: Glass Beads of the Viking Age.

An inquiry into the glass beads of the Vikings. Sourced information and pictures. Norwegian Vikings purchased silk from Persia.

Silk for The Vikings , Oxbow Center for Interdisciplinary Research on Social Stress. A History of Scandinavia: Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Finland, Iceland , p.

The Euro TV Place. Hentet August 27, Arkiveret fra originalen July 6, Hentet July 1, Museum vil udnytte vikingefascinationen. Annals of Human Genetics Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled. Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products.

The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants. To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods.

Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod. As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.

Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone. Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery.

Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives. Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.

Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology. There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.

Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.

They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.

Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.

Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes.

Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king. Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e.

Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus Olaus Magnus, , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus in An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hicke, who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking.

The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.

Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism. The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas.

Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of the Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

The character is featured in the Marvel Studios film Thor and its sequels Thor: The Dark World and Thor: The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series.

Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.

Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.

Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.

The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden.

The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway. This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century.

The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Haplogroup I-M defined by specific genetic markers on the Y chromosome mutation occurs with the greatest frequency among Scandinavian males: Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

A specialised genetic and surname study in Liverpool showed marked Norse heritage: Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Old Norse and The Norse Sagas. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.

Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.

The longship facilitated far-reaching expeditions, but the Vikings also constructed several other types of ships. Viking Age arms and armour. Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks and Volga trade route.

Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.

These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Lepel Regional Executive Committee. Did Swedish Vikings really found Kyiv Rus?

Visby Sweden , n. Skeat , published in , defined Viking: Skeat; Clarendon press; p. An etymological contribution" PDF. Retrieved 20 April Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.

Retrieved 17 March Ships and Men in the Late Viking Age: A reply to Harald Bjorvand". Centre of Medieval Studies University of Bergen.

Boas 13 May The University of Texas at Austin. Archived from the original on 7 April Retrieved 23 April Saga-book of the Viking Society.

A private homepage project. National Museum of Denmark. Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S Viking era AD— AD" www. The Scandinavians in history Pg. Retrieved 6 April Retrieved 21 May Archived from the original PDF on 18 July Retrieved 11 May Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings , Penguin Scandinavia and Europe AD — Archeologists Find Gateway to the Viking Empire".

Retrieved 27 February Retrieved 20 December A bibliography of French-language", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.

Archived from the original on Meccan trade and the rise of Islam. Worlds Together Worlds Apart. James Graham-Campbell and Gareth Williams, pp.

Archived from the original on 2 March Retrieved 1 March Archived from the original on 4 March An Encyclopaedia Pamela Crabtree, ed.

An Encyclopedia Illustrated ed. Archived from the original PDF on 19 April Retrieved 22 February Secrets of Viking Ships Viking Longship Osprey Publishing, Oxford, Retrieved 23 June Folkekost og sundhedsforhold i gamle dage.

Belyst igennem den oldnordiske Litteratur. Diet and health in previous times, as revealed in the Old Norse Literature, especially the Icelandic Sagas.

Danish Journal of Archaeology. Retrieved 19 June Ribe Vikingecenter in Danish. In southern Scandinavia ie. Retrieved 19 April Archived from the original on 19 April Garland Reference Library of the Humanities.

Archived from the original on 21 April Archived from the original on 14 July Food — Fruit, Grain and Vegetable.

The Jorvik Viking Centre. University of Southern Denmark. Retrieved 14 November Archived from the original on 30 March Journal of Archaeological Science: Encyclopedia of the Ancient World.

Maps of trade routes. Retrieved 24 February Barbarians come to Market: Glass Beads of the Viking Age. They were often owned by coastal farmers and commissioned by the king in times of conflict, in order to build a powerful naval force.

While longships were deployed by the Norse in warfare, they were mostly used for troop transports, not as warships.

In the tenth century, these boats would sometimes be tied together in battle to form a steady platform for infantry warfare. Longships were called dragonships drakushiffen by the Franks because they had a dragon-shaped prow.

The Karve were a small type of Viking longship, with a broad hull somewhat similar to the knarr. They were used for both war and ordinary transport, carrying people, cargo or livestock.

Because they were able to navigate in very shallow water, they were also used for coasting. Karves had broad beams of approximately 17 feet 5.

Viking ships varied from other contemporary ships, being generally more seaworthy and lighter. This was achieved through use of clinker lapstrake construction.

The planks from which Viking vessels were constructed were rived split from large, old-growth trees—especially oaks.

Working up from a stout oaken keel , the shipwrights would rivet the planks together using wrought iron rivets and roves. Ribs maintained the shape of the hull sides.

Each tier of planks overlapped the one below, and waterproof caulking was used between planks to create a strong but supple hull.

Remarkably large vessels could be constructed using traditional clinker construction. Dragon-ships carrying warriors were not uncommon. Furthermore, during the early Viking Age, oar ports replaced rowlocks, allowing oars to be stored while the ship was at sail and to provide better angles for rowing.

The largest ships of the era could travel five to six knots using oar power and up to ten knots under sail. With such technological improvements, the Vikings began to make more and more ocean voyages, as their ships were more seaworthy.

However, in order to sail in ocean waters, the Vikings needed to develop methods of relatively precise navigation. Essentially, the Vikings simply used prior familiarity with tides, sailing times, and landmarks in order to route courses.

For example, scholars contend that the sighting of a whale allowed the Vikings to determine the direction of a ship. Because whales feed in highly nutritious waters, commonly found in regions where landmasses have pushed deep-water currents towards shallower areas, the sighting of a whale functioned as a signal that land was near.

On the other hand, some academics have proposed that the Vikings also developed more advanced aids to navigation, such as the use of a sun compass.

A wooden half-disc found on the shores of Narsarsuaq , Greenland initially seemed to support this hypothesis. However, further investigation of the object revealed that the slits inscribed in the disc are disproportionately spaced, and so the object could not in fact function as an accurate compass.

Because a sunstone is able to polarize light, it is a plausible method for determining direction. The stone changes to a certain color, based on the direction of the waves, but only when the object is held in an area with direct sunlight.

Thus, most scholars debate the reliability and the plausibility of using a navigational tool that can only determine direction in such limited conditions.

Viking sagas routinely tell of voyages where Vikings suffered from being "hafvilla" bewildered —voyages beset by fog or bad weather, where they completely lost their sense of direction.

This description suggests they did not use a sunstone when the sun was obscured.

A Historiographic Overview", History Compass After his death she married Atli, but when he murdered her brothers, she killed her sons by him, fed him their sizzling hot deluxe kostenlos, and then slew him. Longships were also double-ended, the symmetrical bow and stern allowing ol lyon ship to reverse direction quickly without having to turn around; this trait proved particularly useful in northern latitudes where icebergs and sea ice posed hazards to navigation. The longship allowed the Norse horseshoe casino rewards card go Vikingwhich might explain why this type of ship has become almost synonymous with the concept of Vikings. A History of Scandinavia: Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. Found in the nominative case in a runic inscription as -ota. Hentet Proactive erfahrungen 1, Food — Fruit, Grain and Vegetable. This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture. The Jarls were formel 1 finale 2019 aristocracy of the Vegas palms online casino no deposit society. Runic examples in the nominative case include a-lauk, erlyg. Runic examples include nominative case gaiRlauk and accusative case kaiR[l]a[uk].

Vikinger namen - abstract thinking

Für diesen Sven trifft das ja nicht wirklich zu, als Jungenname kann er aber auch heute noch gut vergeben werden. Benedicti des Adrevald von Fleury kurz nach geschrieben wird berichtet, dass christliche Gefangene ein festes Lager errichten mussten, während die Normannen sich erholt hätten. Eine Studie über die vorzeitliche Irreligiosität. Das war eine völlig andere soziale Gruppe mit eigenen Gesetzen und Handlungsnormen. Cumque amnem Maternam transissent et longius a civitate processissent, Nortmanni eos omnes insecuti comprehenderunt ipsum episcopum cum omni populo. Hoc ergo Uli, videlicet Dani, quasi divinitus sibi imperatum credentes, a loco memorato recesserunt et ad urbem ipsam directo itinere propera-runt. Im Schwedischen wird "Tjur" mit "der Stier" übersetzt.

namen vikinger - remarkable, rather

Ragnar und die Wikinger müssen die Http: Die Bezeichnungen der Schiffsmannschaften sind nur wenig belegt. Hier macht es uns der Comicautor wieder schwer. Rollo kam nicht als Staatengründer aus dem Norden, sondern ihm und dem Rest seiner Mannschaft, der von dem bereits dezimierten Teil der Normannen, die aus England gekommen waren, noch übrig geblieben war, wurde ein begrenztes Gebiet als Wohnsitz zugewiesen pro tutela regni zum Schutz des Königreiches [] Dabei wird der Übertritt zum Christentum als Mittel zur Besänftigung der Mordlust betrachtet und zur Bedingung der Landzuweisung. Snorri definiert in der Ynglinga saga den Seekönig so:. Diese Website verwendet Cookies. Dann erst geht er zufrieden auf sein Schiff.

It also coincides with the Latin word for "heather". This was the name of kings of Sweden, Denmark and Norway. King Erik IX of Sweden 12th century is the patron saint of that country.

It also coincides with the word for "heather" in some languages. This was the name of the wife of Jarl in Norse legend.

This was the name of the goddess of love, beauty, war and death in Norse mythology. Some scholars connect her with the goddess Frigg. This was the name of a Norse god.

He may have originally been called Yngvi , with the name Freyr being his title. Freyr presided over fertility, sunlight and rain, and was the husband of the frost giantess Gerd.

With his twin sister Freya and father Njord he was one of the group of deities called the Vanir. A famous bearer was Mexican painter Frida Kahlo In Norse mythology she was the goddess of the earth, air and fertility, and the wife of Odin.

Some scholars believe that she and the goddess Freya share a common origin. This form is only attested in the Old Norse period belonging to a horse.

In Norse myth Gerd was a fertility goddess, a frost giantess who was the wife of Freyr. She also aided Thor in his fight against the giant Geirrod.

The mutton and swine were cut into leg and shoulder joints and chops. The frequent remains of pig skull and foot bones found on house floors indicate that brawn and trotters were also popular.

Hens were kept for both their meat and eggs, and the bones of game birds such as black grouse , golden plover , wild ducks, and geese have also been found.

Seafood was important, in some places even more so than meat. Whales and walrus were hunted for food in Norway and the north-western parts of the North Atlantic region, and seals were hunted nearly everywhere.

Oysters , mussels and shrimps were eaten in large quantities and cod and salmon were popular fish. In the southern regions, herring was also important.

Milk and buttermilk were popular, both as cooking ingredients and drinks, but were not always available, even at farms. Food was often salted and enhanced with spices, some of which were imported like black pepper , while others were cultivated in herb gardens or harvested in the wild.

Home grown spices included caraway , mustard and horseradish as evidenced from the Oseberg ship burial [] or dill , coriander , and wild celery , as found in cesspits at Coppergate in York.

Thyme , juniper berry , sweet gale , yarrow , rue and peppercress were also used and cultivated in herb gardens. Vikings collected and ate fruits, berries and nuts.

Apple wild crab apples , plums and cherries were part of the diet, [] as were rose hips and raspberry , wild strawberry , blackberry , elderberry , rowan , hawthorn and various wild berries, specific to the locations.

The shells were used for dyeing, and it is assumed that the nuts were consumed. The invention and introduction of the mouldboard plough revolutionised agriculture in Scandinavia in the early Viking Age and made it possible to farm even poor soils.

In Ribe , grains of rye , barley , oat and wheat dated to the 8th century have been found and examined, and are believed to have been cultivated locally.

Remains of bread from primarily Birka in Sweden were made of barley and wheat. It is unclear if the Norse leavened their breads, but their ovens and baking utensils suggest that they did.

This suggests a much higher actual percentage, as linen is poorly preserved compared to wool for example. The quality of food for common people was not always particularly high.

The research at Coppergate shows that the Vikings in York made bread from whole meal flour — probably both wheat and rye — but with the seeds of cornfield weeds included.

Corncockle Agrostemma , would have made the bread dark-coloured, but the seeds are poisonous, and people who ate the bread might have become ill.

Seeds of carrots, parsnip , and brassicas were also discovered, but they were poor specimens and tend to come from white carrots and bitter tasting cabbages.

The effects of this can be seen on skeletal remains of that period. Sports were widely practised and encouraged by the Vikings.

This included spear and stone throwing, building and testing physical strength through wrestling see glima , fist fighting , and stone lifting. In areas with mountains, mountain climbing was practised as a sport.

Swimming was a popular sport and Snorri Sturluson describes three types: Children often participated in some of the sport disciplines and women have also been mentioned as swimmers, although it is unclear if they took part in competition.

King Olaf Tryggvason was hailed as a master of both mountain climbing and oar-jumping, and was said to have excelled in the art of knife juggling as well.

Skiing and ice skating were the primary winter sports of the Vikings, although skiing was also used as everyday means of transport in winter and in the colder regions of the north.

Horse fighting was practised for sport, although the rules are unclear. It appears to have involved two stallions pitted against each other, within smell and sight of fenced-off mares.

Whatever the rules were, the fights often resulted in the death of one of the stallions. Icelandic sources refer to the sport of knattleik. A ball game akin to hockey , knattleik involved a bat and a small hard ball and was usually played on a smooth field of ice.

The rules are unclear, but it was popular with both adults and children, even though it often led to injuries. Knattleik appears to have been played only in Iceland, where it attracted many spectators, as did horse fighting.

Hunting, as a sport, was limited to Denmark, where it was not regarded as an important occupation. Birds, deer , hares and foxes were hunted with bow and spear, and later with crossbows.

The techniques were stalking, snare and traps and par force hunting with dog packs. Both archaeological finds and written sources testify to the fact that the Vikings set aside time for social and festive gatherings.

Board games and dice games were played as a popular pastime at all levels of society. Preserved gaming pieces and boards show game boards made of easily available materials like wood, with game pieces manufactured from stone, wood or bone, while other finds include elaborately carved boards and game pieces of glass, amber , antler or walrus tusk, together with materials of foreign origin, such as ivory.

Chess also appeared at the end of the Viking Age. It was played on a board with squares using black and white pieces, with moves made according to dice rolls.

The Ockelbo Runestone shows two men engaged in Hnefatafl, and the sagas suggest that money or valuables could have been involved in some dice games.

On festive occasions storytelling , skaldic poetry , music and alcoholic drinks, like beer and mead , contributed to the atmosphere. The Vikings are known to have played instruments including harps , fiddles , lyres and lutes.

Viking-age reenactors have undertaken experimental activities such as iron smelting and forging using Norse techniques at Norstead in Newfoundland for example.

The remains of that ship and four others were discovered during a excavation in the Roskilde Fjord. Tree-ring analysis has shown the ship was built of oak in the vicinity of Dublin in about The purpose of the voyage was to test and document the seaworthiness, speed, and manoeuvrability of the ship on the rough open sea and in coastal waters with treacherous currents.

The crew tested how the long, narrow, flexible hull withstood the tough ocean waves. The expedition also provided valuable new information on Viking longships and society.

The ship was built using Viking tools, materials, and much the same methods as the original ship. Other vessels, often replicas of the Gokstad ship full- or half-scale or Skuldelev I have been built and tested as well.

Knowledge about the arms and armour of the Viking age is based on archaeological finds, pictorial representation, and to some extent on the accounts in the Norse sagas and Norse laws recorded in the 13th century.

According to custom, all free Norse men were required to own weapons and were permitted to carry them at all times.

However, swords were rarely used in battle, probably not sturdy enough for combat and most likely only used as symbolic or decorative items.

Bows were used in the opening stages of land battles and at sea, but they tended to be considered less "honourable" than melee weapons.

Vikings were relatively unusual for the time in their use of axes as a main battle weapon. The warfare and violence of the Vikings were often motivated and fuelled by their beliefs in Norse religion , focusing on Thor and Odin , the gods of war and death.

Such tactics may have been deployed intentionally by shock troops , and the berserk-state may have been induced through ingestion of materials with psychoactive properties, such as the hallucinogenic mushrooms, Amanita muscaria , [] or large amounts of alcohol.

The Vikings established and engaged in extensive trading networks throughout the known world and had a profound influence on the economic development of Europe and Scandinavia not the least.

Except for the major trading centres of Ribe , Hedeby and the like, the Viking world was unfamiliar with the use of coinage and was based on so called bullion economy.

Silver was the most common metal in the economy, although gold was also used to some extent. Silver circulated in the form of bars, or ingots , as well as in the form of jewellery and ornaments.

A large number of silver hoards from the Viking Age have been uncovered, both in Scandinavia and the lands they settled. Organized trade covered everything from ordinary items in bulk to exotic luxury products.

The Viking ship designs, like that of the knarr , were an important factor in their success as merchants. To counter these valuable imports, the Vikings exported a large variety of goods.

Other exports included weapons, walrus ivory , wax , salt and cod. As one of the more exotic exports, hunting birds were sometimes provided from Norway to the European aristocracy, from the 10th century.

Many of these goods were also traded within the Viking world itself, as well as goods such as soapstone and whetstone. Soapstone was traded with the Norse on Iceland and in Jutland , who used it for pottery.

Whetstones were traded and used for sharpening weapons, tools and knives. Wool was also very important as a domestic product for the Vikings, to produce warm clothing for the cold Scandinavian and Nordic climate, and for sails.

Sails for Viking ships required large amounts of wool, as evidenced by experimental archaeology. There are archaeological signs of organised textile productions in Scandinavia, reaching as far back as the early Iron Ages.

Artisans and craftsmen in the larger towns were supplied with antlers from organised hunting with large-scale reindeer traps in the far north.

They were used as raw material for making everyday utensils like combs. In England the Viking Age began dramatically on 8 June when Norsemen destroyed the abbey on the island of Lindisfarne.

Not until the s did scholars outside Scandinavia begin to seriously reassess the achievements of the Vikings, recognizing their artistry, technological skills, and seamanship.

Norse Mythology , sagas, and literature tell of Scandinavian culture and religion through tales of heroic and mythological heroes. Many of these sagas were written in Iceland, and most of them, even if they had no Icelandic provenance, were preserved there after the Middle Ages due to the continued interest of Icelanders in Norse literature and law codes.

The year Viking influence on European history is filled with tales of plunder and colonisation, and the majority of these chronicles came from western witnesses and their descendants.

Less common, though equally relevant, are the Viking chronicles that originated in the east, including the Nestor chronicles, Novgorod chronicles, Ibn Fadlan chronicles, Ibn Rusta chronicles, and brief mentions by Photius , patriarch of Constantinople, regarding their first attack on the Byzantine Empire.

Other chroniclers of Viking history include Adam of Bremen , who wrote, in the fourth volume of his Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum , "[t]here is much gold here in Zealand , accumulated by piracy.

These pirates, which are called wichingi by their own people, and Ascomanni by our own people, pay tribute to the Danish king.

Early modern publications, dealing with what is now called Viking culture, appeared in the 16th century, e. Historia de gentibus septentrionalibus Olaus Magnus, , and the first edition of the 13th-century Gesta Danorum of Saxo Grammaticus in An important early British contributor to the study of the Vikings was George Hicke, who published his Linguarum vett.

During the 18th century, British interest and enthusiasm for Iceland and early Scandinavian culture grew dramatically, expressed in English translations of Old Norse texts and in original poems that extolled the supposed Viking virtues.

The word "viking" was first popularised at the beginning of the 19th century by Erik Gustaf Geijer in his poem, The Viking.

The renewed interest of Romanticism in the Old North had contemporary political implications. The Geatish Society , of which Geijer was a member, popularised this myth to a great extent.

Fascination with the Vikings reached a peak during the so-called Viking revival in the late 18th and 19th centuries as a branch of Romantic nationalism.

In Britain this was called Septentrionalism, in Germany " Wagnerian " pathos, and in the Scandinavian countries Scandinavism.

The new dictionaries of the Old Norse language enabled the Victorians to grapple with the primary Icelandic sagas.

Few scholars still accept these texts as reliable sources, as historians now rely more on archaeology and numismatics , disciplines that have made valuable contributions toward understanding the period.

The romanticised idea of the Vikings constructed in scholarly and popular circles in northwestern Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries was a potent one, and the figure of the Viking became a familiar and malleable symbol in different contexts in the politics and political ideologies of 20th-century Europe.

In Germany, awareness of Viking history in the 19th century had been stimulated by the border dispute with Denmark over Schleswig-Holstein and the use of Scandinavian mythology by Richard Wagner.

The idealised view of the Vikings appealed to Germanic supremacists who transformed the figure of the Viking in accordance with the ideology of the Germanic master race.

The cultural phenomenon of Viking expansion was re-interpreted for use as propaganda to support the extreme militant nationalism of the Third Reich, and ideologically informed interpretations of Viking paganism and the Scandinavian use of runes were employed in the construction of Nazi mysticism.

Other political organisations of the same ilk, such as the former Norwegian fascist party Nasjonal Samling , similarly appropriated elements of the modern Viking cultural myth in their symbolism and propaganda.

Vikings appear in several books by the Danish American writer Poul Anderson , while British explorer, historian, and writer Tim Severin authored a trilogy of novels in about a young Viking adventurer Thorgils Leifsson, who travels around the world.

The character is featured in the Marvel Studios film Thor and its sequels Thor: The Dark World and Thor: The character also appears in the film The Avengers and its associated animated series.

Since the s, there has been rising enthusiasm for historical reenactment. While the earliest groups had little claim for historical accuracy, the seriousness and accuracy of reenactors has increased.

Many reenactor groups participate in live-steel combat, and a few have Viking-style ships or boats. Modern reconstructions of Viking mythology have shown a persistent influence in late 20th- and early 21st-century popular culture in some countries, inspiring comics, role-playing games, computer games, and music, including Viking metal , a subgenre of heavy metal music.

Apart from two or three representations of ritual helmets—with protrusions that may be either stylised ravens, snakes, or horns—no depiction of the helmets of Viking warriors, and no preserved helmet, has horns.

Historians therefore believe that Viking warriors did not wear horned helmets; whether such helmets were used in Scandinavian culture for other, ritual purposes, remains unproven.

The Vikings were often depicted with winged helmets and in other clothing taken from Classical antiquity , especially in depictions of Norse gods.

This was done to legitimise the Vikings and their mythology by associating it with the Classical world, which had long been idealised in European culture.

The latter-day mythos created by national romantic ideas blended the Viking Age with aspects of the Nordic Bronze Age some 2, years earlier.

They were probably used for ceremonial purposes. Viking helmets were conical, made from hard leather with wood and metallic reinforcement for regular troops.

The iron helmet with mask and mail was for the chieftains, based on the previous Vendel -age helmets from central Sweden. The only original Viking helmet discovered is the Gjermundbu helmet , found in Norway.

This helmet is made of iron and has been dated to the 10th century. The image of wild-haired, dirty savages sometimes associated with the Vikings in popular culture is a distorted picture of reality.

There is no evidence that Vikings drank out of the skulls of vanquished enemies. This was a reference to drinking horns , but was mistranslated in the 17th century [] as referring to the skulls of the slain.

Studies of genetic diversity provide indication of the origin and expansion of the Norse population. Haplogroup I-M defined by specific genetic markers on the Y chromosome mutation occurs with the greatest frequency among Scandinavian males: Female descent studies show evidence of Norse descent in areas closest to Scandinavia, such as the Shetland and Orkney islands.

A specialised genetic and surname study in Liverpool showed marked Norse heritage: Recent research suggests that the Celtic warrior Somerled , who drove the Vikings out of western Scotland and was the progenitor of Clan Donald , may have been of Viking descent , a member of haplogroup R-M From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

For other uses, see Viking disambiguation. Old Norse and The Norse Sagas. The Lingsberg Runestone in Sweden. Runic inscriptions of the larger of the Jelling Stones in Denmark.

Two types of Norse runestones from the Viking Age. Norse funeral and Ship burial. Burial mounds Gamla Uppsala. Examples of Viking burial mounds and stone set graves, collectively known as tumuli.

The longship facilitated far-reaching expeditions, but the Vikings also constructed several other types of ships.

Viking Age arms and armour. Trade route from the Varangians to the Greeks and Volga trade route. Retrieved 30 September Viking, also called Norseman or Northman, member of the Scandinavian seafaring warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.

These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were Lepel Regional Executive Committee. Did Swedish Vikings really found Kyiv Rus?

Studier af genetisk spredning giver indikationer af oprindelsen og udvidelsen af vikingerne. For alternative betydninger, se Viking flertydig.

To typer af nordiske runesten fra vikingetiden. Det rekonstruerede langskib Havhingsten fra Glendalough. En model af skibstypen knarr.

I det sydlige Skandinavien dvs. Visby Sweden , n. Skeat , Udgivet , definerede Viking: An etymological contribution ". Principles of English Etymology Clarendon press, p.

The University of Texas at Austin. A reply to Harald Bjorvand ". Arkiveret fra originalen 7. Russia Online Etymology Dictionary.

A private homepage project. National Museum of Denmark. The Oxford Illustrated History of the Vikings.

The Viking Great Army and its Legacy: Oxford University Press, , p. Nicolle, D, Turnbull, S Viking era AD— AD" www. The Scandinavians in history Pg.

Benedikz, The Varangians of Byzantium , , p. A Historical Linguistic Companion , p. Cambridge University Press, A History of the Vikings.

Penguin Historical Atlas of the Vikings , Penguin Scandinavia and Europe AD — Archeologists Find Gateway to the Viking Empire. Acta Archaeologica 71 1: A bibliography of French-language ", Caen, Centre for research on the countries of the North and Northwest, University of Caen, , p.

Policy Review Hoover Institution. Arkiveret fra originalen Meccan trade and the rise of Islam First Georgias Press. James Graham-Campbell and Gareth Williams, pp.

The Vikings, to Why Alfred Burnt the Cakes. Arkiveret fra originalen 17 November Hentet 17 September Nogle manuskripter skriver id est terra vini.

The Viking Discovery of America: The Guardian , 9 June Hentet 28 June Norwegian runes and runic inscriptions. An Encyclopaedia Pamela Crabtree, ed.

An Encyclopedia Illustrated udg. The Mosfell Archaeological Project. Secrets of Viking Ships Viking Longship Osprey Publishing, Oxford, Double graves with headless slaves.

Ordbog over det Gamle Norske Sprog. Ships and Men in the Late Viking Age: Folkekost og sundhedsforhold i gamle dage.

Belyst igennem den oldnordiske Litteratur. Danish Journal of Archaeology. Garland Reference Library of the Humanities.

Food- Fruit, Grain and Vegetable. The Jorvik Viking Centre. Om Kaare hentet d.

0 thoughts to “Vikinger namen”

Hinterlasse eine Antwort

Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. Erforderliche Felder sind markiert *